Measurement of venlafaxine based on electrochemical methods using pencil graphite electrode modified by molecularly imprinted polypyrrole

Document Type: Original Article


1 Department of Chemistry, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran

2 Avicenna Laboratories Inc., Yusefabad, Jahanara Ave., 23rd St., No. 8, Tehran, Iran


In this research for the first time, an electrochemical sensor based on the molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) onto a pencil graphite electrode (PGE) was fabricated and applied for the voltammetric determination of venlafaxine (VF). The polypyrrole (PPy) film was prepared by the cyclic voltammetry (CV). Pyrrole in the presence of two supporting electrolyte (KCl and p-toluene sulphonic acid, PTSA) with and without a template molecule VF on a PGE was deposited. The performance of the MIP and non-imprinted polymer (NIP) films was evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV). Current measurements were performed in the potential range between 0.5 and 1.2 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Several important parameters controlling the performance of the MIP were investigated and optimized. In a linear concentration range, the detection limit of VF was found as 2.8×10-8 µM. The MIP film exhibited a high selectivity and sensitivity toward VF. The results of this study showed that the electrode modified by molecularly imprinted polymer as a sensor able to measure the drug venlafaxine be used in cases of natural and pharmaceutical industries.