Document Type : Original Article
Department of Chemistry, University of Engineering & Technology, Lahore, Pakistan
Unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) having cis configuration are vital factor in diet as a source of fats. Among UFA, omega-6 and omega-9 gives more epoxidized products due to greater unsaturation level. The high content of linoleic and oleic acid of citrulus lanatus (Watermelon) seed oil was epoxidized by the synthesis of peroxy-acetic acid (behave as active oxygen carrier). This is a precursor of epoxidation and synthesized by the reaction of glacial acetic acid and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of catalyst and an inert solvent that leads to the stability of epoxidised product. Choice of catalyst (Amberlite IR-120) got priority as eco-friendly and more effective in terms of oxirane conversion instead of mineral acids i.e. HNO3 and H2SO4. The epoxidation of Watermelon seed (WMSO) oil go through underlying two main reaction phases via Heterogeneous & Homogenous phase. In heterogeneous phase, reaction starts with the formation of precursor like peroxy-acetic acid by excitingly combination of H2O2 with acidic acids (liquid phase) and a catalyst Amberlite I.R. 120 (solid phase). This step is followed by homogeneous phase reaction of combination of peroxy-acetic acid (liquid phase) with high content of linoleic acid and oleic acid fatty acids (liquid phase). The epoxidation of WMSO oil can be confirmed by oxirane content value, ¹H-NMR, FTIR, LC-MS and ¹³C-NMR analysis.