The Effect of Solid State Synthesis on the PZT95/5-2Nb Piezoelectric Properties

Document Type : Original Article


1 Materials and Energy Research Center, Meshkinshahr, Karaj, Iran.

2 Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran

3 Materials and Energy Research Center, Meshkinshahr, Karaj, Iran


The synthesis of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) ceramics using solid state reaction, usually is carried out in the form of one-step and two-step processes. In this study, in order to synthesize the Pb0.99(Zr0.95Ti0.05)0.98Nb0.02O3 compound, these two synthesis methods were exploited. In both methods (one and two-step), an increase in the volume was observed during the calcination. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis indicated that considering the melting point of the lead (Pb), firstly, the lead oxide melted and then it reacted with other existing components. The product of the reaction gradually changes into the perovskite structure. In order to investigate the sintering temperature, obtained powders were formed into tablets using a pressure of 120 MPa and then these tablets were exposed to various temperatures. Results showed that produced samples using the two-step method at the temperature of 1250 ºC, reach the density of 7.82 gr/cm3. This temperature (1250 ºC) is 100 ºC lower than the temperature at which the one-step method was performed for sintering of the produced powders. For measuring the piezoelectric constant (d33), samples were electrodized and polarized. Measuring the piezoelectric constant demonstrated that for samples sintered at the temperature of 1250 ºC using the two-step synthesis method and that of sintered at 1350 ºC using the one-step method, the highest values were 74 PC/N and 66 PC/N, respectively.