Extraction of P. cubeba Essential Oil by Microwave Assisted Hydrodistillation: Modeling and Process Optimization

Document Type : Original Article


1 Chemical Engineering Department, Semarang State University, Semarang, Indonesia

2 Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia


The industrial scale equipment design of P. cubeba essential oil extraction by microwave assisted
hydro distillation (MAHD), as a relatively new extraction method, requires quantitative description
of the mass transfer as well as explorative studies focusing on process optimization. The
quantitative modeling was generated by several mathematical diffusion formulas and verified by the
experimental mass transfer phenomena, while the optimization of particle-to-water ratio (0.033,
0.05, and 0.067 w/w) and times (0-52 min) was conducted by Response Surface Methodology
(RSM). The results showed that the proposed mathematical model based on unsteady-state intraparticle diffusion theories well describes the rate of extraction of P. cubeba essential oil using
MAHD method. The particle-to-water ratio as well as the extraction time significantly influences
the oil yield. The optimum values obtained were 0.05 w/v and 32 min for particle-to-water ratio and
time respectively, while the produced oil yield was theoretically 57.89%.